Several different types of evidence display the use of spices in the ancient Roman world including literary evidence and physical objects. Apicius’ cookbook has lasted for centuries and has been depicted and repeated many times, as illustrated by the edition made by Martin Lister in 1709 (University of Missouri). The sheer amount of references within Apicius indicate the prevalence of spices in the ancient Roman world. Physical objects, such as the mortar and pestle, display how Romans would grind spices or medicine (Aweidah). Furthermore, Pompeii gives us a snapshot of an entire Roman city, “We see the oil still preserved in jugs…the lentils, the barley, the spices in the cupboard; everything awaits our pleasure,” (Vehling 22). This site gives a priceless view into the past, including a snapshot of which spices were used in a Roman kitchen.